About Desktop Processors

In those days you were generally required to write your own programs in BASIC and your code or programs were stored to either a cassette tape, or, if the program was small enough, to a 5 ½ floppy. I spent many a day playing true gaming classics like Oregon Trail or a two-dimensional Star Trek game played with the up and down arrow keys on a keyboard. One thing is certain; PC performance has increased virtually exponentially since their inception.

As I write this guide, I am surrounded by a faint glow that comes from my well loved Macintosh Color Classic PC, which at the time of its manufacture, came with an
“An Oh So Powerful” 16 MHz processor and an 80MB Hard Drive. I was so impressed with my Mac when I purchased it; it had a small but bright color screen built in, a hard drive, and a 3 1/4 inch floppy drive. Thanks to Al Gore I could hook up a 1200 baud modem and access a world of ASCII websites via the
“Internet”. I truly viewed my Macintosh as a portable PC, it was relatively light and easy to tote around and I took it virtually everywhere I could. Today my Macintosh is still functional, however the only real purpose it serves is as something of a curiosity to any visitors I may have under the age of 25.

What a Difference a Decade Makes:

I am writing this guide on a Dell Latitude Laptop which I purchased a mere 13 years after the Macintosh. My Laptop is far from the latest and greatest in portable technology, yet it is hundreds if not thousands of times more powerful than my beloved Macintosh.

We all recognize that Personal Computers serve many functions in our lives, from reducing complexity, to entertainment, the list is virtually endless and their impact on out lives truly astonishing. Central to the seemingly unreal advancement in PC performance over the last 2 decades is the processor. Processors or CPUs as they are commonly called are present in virtually any electronic device that you touch today. Whether you are looking to upgrade your current PC or buy an entirely new system, you can quickly become confused by the sheer range of processors that are available and the terminology associated with said Processors.

The purpose of this guide is to give you a basic understanding of CPUs and to help you make a good decision when deciding on what CPU is right for you.
This guide is not meant to be a technical dissertation; its goal is to provide very general information and designed to give you, the reader, a general understanding of what a processor is and to help you make a good decision when it comes time to purchase. If you are more technically oriented, I would suggest the many tech-detailed guides available elsewhere online.

First Things First: What is a CPU?

CPU stands for Central Processing Unit, and even after many years of refinements in PC technology, the CPU is still the central part of your computer’s operations. A CPU manages the flow of data throughout your entire PC. The role of a CPU is to manipulate (process) data that passes through your PC, reading it from your PC’s devices, manipulating it as required, and then sending it out to storage or display devices.

Physically, a CPU is comprised of millions of microscopic transistors which are etched onto a layer of silicon via chemical and lithographic processes.
Transistors themselves are exceptionally simple devices that store binary
(on/off) values, and it’s from these on/off states that more complicated processes can be performed. Modern transistors are extremely complex; a CPU such as AMD’s Athlon 64 FX-55 is comprised of just fewer than 106 million transistors. A dual-core chip such as Intel’s Pentium Extreme Edition 840, that transistor count jumps to around 230 million.

Simply put, the CPU is the brain of your PC. All of your PC’s functions rely on the CPU and all functions interact with the CPU on a constant basis.

Deciding on a CPU that meets your needs isn’t simply a matter of price point. There are an extreme number of processors available for purchase today and they can range in price anywhere from $2.00 to $2,000. CPUs are the central component of a PC’s processing power; however they are a part of a whole. There are many components within any individual PC and they all must
“plug” into what is known as the PC’s motherboard. To put it simply, the motherboard is the component of the PC that integrates a PC’s individual components, the CPU being one of them.

When upgrading a PC or constructing one at home, it is important that the CPU you choose is compatible with the Motherboard. I will talk in more detail about determining the compatibility of a CPU with any given motherboard later on in this guide.

When purchasing a CPU you should consider the capabilities that you’re looking for in a processor, and the types of software you’re likely to run on your machine. It’s much better to make the right choice and get a PC that’s ideal for your chosen applications than end up with something that sounds good on paper, but can’t run the core tasks you need.

The Two Major Brands: AMD and Intel:

Intel and AMD offer us a wide range of CPUs and the two companies’ products are in direct competition. AMD and Intel CPUs are capable of running the same PC software and are not software specific or proprietary in nature. The primary differences between these processors are technical in detail that for the purpose of this guide will be considered inconsequential.

You will generally find that pricing in the CPU market is very competitive and, generally speaking, Intel chips are more expensive than comparable AMD processors. On the higher end, Intel offers the Pentium 4 in numerous configurations with names to match. Terms or names that you may see tied to the Pentium 4 include Hyperthreading, Extreme Edition, Dual Core and Intel Duo. Intel Processors come in both 32 and 64 bit versions. AMD was the first CPU manufacturer to offer a 64-bit CPU and come as both the Athlon 64 and Athlon 64 FX. The Athlon FX and the Intel Pentium 4 Extreme Edition are competing chips for power users.
You may have heard of 64-bit processing, it is available in both manufacturers CPU lines. The primarily advantage that 64-bit processing has over 32-bit is in the amount of data that the processor can address. 32-bit chips can handle around 4 gigabytes of data while a 64-bit chip can handle
16 BILLION gigabytes – quite a difference. 64-bit processors can run most 32-bit applications but require a 64-bit operating system to function properly. At this stage, 64-bit processing can be considered as something of overkill as a 32-bit processor, especially one that is dual core, can efficiently run the majority of today’s software applications.

Both Intel and AMD offer budget versions of their processor, Intel’s offering being the Celeron
– a striped down version of the Pentium. AMD’s budget offering is the Duron; both Budget chips again offer similar performance and pricing.

Hyper-threading VS Dual Core:

Most of Intel’s Pentium 4 processor support a technology called Hyperthreading. Hyperthreading allows the processor to be utilized virtually as two processors as one. This technology can give a boost to performance; however it should not be confused with Dual-Core processing. Hyper threading utilizes software to create two “virtual” processors out of one in an effort to allow for multiple applications to be processed simultaneously. A Dual-Core processor, such as Intel’s new Extreme Edition physically contains two separate processing units on one chip and offers far greater performance.

Naming Conventions:

Manufacturers methods for naming their processors can be very confusing for the average user. Until recently Intel simply used the clock speed of the processor, for example 3.2GHz Pentium 4, while AMD uses names based on the processor’s supposed capabilities. For example, an AMD XP3000+ may have a clock speed of 2.16GHz but in practice it performs more like a 3GHz processor. Intel which for years used clock speed to define its processors has moved to a new 3-digit naming convention. Intel processors will now start with a 3, 5 or 7 – each group representing the type of processor and the motherboard that it is compatible with.

Sockets and Pins:

Simply put, Sockets and Pins are terms used by manufacturers to define the compatibility of a processor and motherboard; a description of a processor should always contain what socket type it is. Motherboards designed to utilize an Intel Socket 478-pin processor for example, will not accept an Athlon Socket A processor, and vice versa.

Front-side Bus:

The front-side bus (FSB) is the interface between the CPU and the main system memory and determines the fastest type of memory your system can use.
The faster the FSB the quicker data can be passed between the CPU and the memory.

Cache memory:

Cache Memory is memory that is added directly to the processor.
Manufacturers add this memory as a way to eliminate potential data “bottlenecks” and to speed the CPUs handling of information. Cache does this by storing frequently used data directly on the CPU itself. Greater Cache generally means faster and better overall performance.


Most users PC’s can be upgraded from their current configurations. Often times you can save yourself hundreds of dollars by performing a little research about your existing PC. Many times PCs can accept much faster processors than were included originally by the manufacturer. A little research on the subject can go a long way toward saving you money and extending the life of your PC.

If you are interested in upgrading your PC you can generally determine rather easily if your existing PC will accept a more powerful processor than it originally came with. A little research into the exact model number of your PC and the PCs motherboard will allow you determine what processors are compatible with your existing PC. Many tools are available online to help you determine what processors are compatible with your existing motherboard.
Often accessing your motherboards manufacturers’ website and researching your specific model will give you all the information you need to determine what processor is right for you.

Industrial Single Board

Industrial single board computers are different than your regular home or office desktop computers. They are even quite different from other single board computers embedded in electronic products. These differences are dictated by their industrial functions. Industrial single board computers are usually designed to perform a solitary task, unlike desktop computers that are for multitasking. Because they are used in industrial processes, industrial single board computers are specifically designed to withstand various industrial factors such as shocks, vibrations, humidity, electromagnetic interference, radio frequency interference, dust, flash and mist.

Looking at the history, most industrial single board computers were initially manufactured in-house or by companies that use them. There are several reasons for this. First, industrial single board computers are often used for company-specific applications, so companies find it more practical to hire engineers to manufacture their own single board computers m rather than let another company manufacture single board computers for them.

Another reason is the lack of standards for single board computers, so the development in a particular single board computer does not necessarily affect other single board computers. Everything changed, however, when PCs began conquering the computer world. Shortly after the PC dominated the computer scene, standards for single board computers started to appear. These standards gave rise to the creation of off-the-shelf single board computers that conform to particular standards and can be programmed to perform specific tasks.

Because these single board computers cost less and are usually updated with new technologies, many companies have opted to use them rather than develop their own industrial single board computers. Some companies still opt for custom single board computers and purchase them from manufacturers rather than develop them in-house.

Hard Drive Destruction

Hammer the hard drive

This is the most direct and fasted way of destroying the equipment. Put it on a surface that can take you beating the hardware part with a hammer and is also easy to clean. Make sure that you are wearing safety gloves and goggles. When hammering this piece of computer hardware be sure that you are the only one in the area as there could be flying bits of metal and glass. Once it is destroyed carefully get rid of the rest. You can take the parts to any place that recycles electronics. Do not put them in the trash to be taken to the landfill

Using hardware tools

One-way you can do hard drive destruction is to rent a sandblaster. Take your hard drive to the driveway or other hard surface and start blasting away the mirror finish. When you do this, you are removing the layer of material that stores the data.

You can also use an angle cutter, which is similar to a saw. Fasten the platter of the hard drive -to an appropriate surface using “C” clamps. Put on your safety goggles and gloves because when you use this hardware tool it makes sparks that fly. You will have to make several cuts in order to do appropriate destruction.

You can also use a drill but you will need a strong drill bit to accomplish this. When using this method you should also wear safety gloves and goggles. Drill several holes in your hard disk platter in several different spots to guarantee that you cannot recover the data.

Look Toward the Upcoming with Online Biology Tutoring

Online Biology Tutoring

If your kids are having problems in the biology category and his/her qualities are beginning to fall, you should consider online biology training. If you know what to look for in a good biology tutor, the Online can provide an excellent source for biology academic assistance. Getting your son/daughter the biology emetics help required nowadays could create a big difference the next day. Look toward the long run with online biology training.

Online biology training is all about the long run. As your son/daughter advances through university, all of the biology abilities discovered the next day is based on the biology answers ideas trained nowadays. For example, you cannot figure out how to increase and split before understanding the ideas of inclusion and subtraction. So, if biology is difficult now, the subject will only become more annoying as time advances.

methods with the help of:

  • Real Biology Teachers
  • Entertaining Classes
  • Customized Lessons

With thousands of websites providing online biology training, you need to be confident your kids get quality biology assistance from a certified professional. You should expect nothing less than a biology tutor with a graduate student or Experts Degree. Your kid’s tutor should have the abilities and knowledge to identify studying strong points and how to use them to help your kids understand and obtain assurance in his/her biology abilities.

A tutor should also understand the psychological factors of having problems in university, especially when it comes to biology. Colleagues can be vicious. In inclusion, being affected by biology can lead to self-esteem issues. Thus, your kids need a biology tutor for Biology Homework Help that will be there for every period, who wishes to build an academic relationship of trust and regard.

To help accomplish this connection and create a positive studying environment, the biology classes should be interactive. Interaction is key.

Finally, if online biology training is going to be truly effective in planning your kids for the long run, he/she need personalized biology training. The category room text should be used to produce a category, review for an evaluation, or strengthen a period trained that might still be rather puzzling.

If you are looking toward the long run and considering online biology training, do not think whether a company has the credentials necessary to bring out the best in your kid’s biology abilities. Ensure that your son/daughter has the resources necessary to produce maturity and a successful career. The biology abilities discovered nowadays can determine the success of the next day if you don’t take an interest.

Avoid Computer Repair Problems

Make A List Of The Symptoms

When your PC starts showing any kind of operational issues, you will be appeared with particular error messages. These error message should be composed alongside alternate symptoms and disappointments confronted by you.

You may not be able to figure out the correct nature and reason of the PC problem because of their technical nature, yet when you catch these points of interest in a detailed and thorough way, then it will help the expert to recognise and take care of the issue rapidly. So you should observe the PC issue and note it down properly.

Get The Telephone Services

Sometimes it is impractical to visit a PC repair shop because of its far location or because of your busy work routine. So you have to investigate the remote consultation services that offer help to repair the PC. You can get the numbers from the official website of the company.

Make Notes The Repair Process

When you are giving over your PC to the onsite computer repairs centre, you should make a point to gather reports from the organisation specifying the particular PC equipment or programming that should be replaced alongside the correct time needed to repair the PC. It is likewise vital to approach the organisation for post repair guarantee. This basic documentation technique will help you to save some extra costs or charges.

Prepare The Computer For Repairing

Before you choose to give the PC for repair, you need to backup all the critical data on the PC including serial number of the PC hard disk, modem’s serial number, and serial number CD-ROM and different parts of the computer.

When you get the PC from the computer repairs and fix centre then these details will help in verifying your computer. Further, you have to delete a wide range of personal and classified information from the PC before giving it for repair.

Best Gaming Laptop for You

Don’t Choose a Touch Screen Laptop

Make sure that you avoid touch screens. It is true that touch screen laptops offer more benefits, but they are also more expensive. If you are not a designer, then there is no need to buy a touch screen laptop.

Check the Keyboard

When buying a gaming laptop, it is important that you check the keyboard. A good gaming laptop should come with a keyboard that is comfortable. Try the keyboard first before you buy.

Don’t Choose a Laptop for Low-End Titles

It is easy to find some laptops that can be used to play some low-end titles such as Candy Crush or World of Warcraft. However, if you need a laptop that can be used to play some games such as The Witcher 4 and Grand Theft Auto V, then these laptops should be avoided.

Check the Size of the Screen

The size of the screen is an important factor that you must check too when buying a new gaming laptop. By choosing a larger screen, you can expect a better viewing experience. 17-inch laptops are more powerful, but the least portable. If you need a gaming laptop that is easy to carry, then a 13- or 14-inch laptop is a better choice.

Custom Cable Assemblies

While this may be a known fact for veterans of these industries, there are individuals that are pretty new to the scene that are still learning the ins and outs of how custom cable assemblies actually work and, in turn, benefit their chosen profession. Moreover, there are a number of individuals that operate from home in smaller scales that are in need of optimizing their own computing & mechanical abilities who really want to know more about how custom cable assemblies can benefit them.

First things first, it is important to have a working definition for a cable assembly. A cable assembly is a group of cables or wires arranged into a single unit. Cable assemblies are organized into an easier-to-install package that is easier to maintain & eventually replace as necessary. A sleeve provides protection to the assembly.

When delving into the world of customization, you as the customer need to have basic information on the type of application of the assembly. Assembly manufacturers want to be sure to provide all customers a quality product that meets their needs, but unless they know what the assembly is for, it’s hard for them to know how best to build the product. Moreover, you also need to provide accurate information about measurements for the amount of product needed because surplus material means an expense that wasn’t necessary on your part.

Certifications held by cable assembly manufacturers are a key thing to keep in mind and to look for from the very beginning. After all, certifications are a mark of competence and dedication to knowing the industry well. It also is indicative of a manufacturer’s dedication to its employees and customers as these certifications ensure safety protocols being followed, their employees are receiving up-to-date training in the materials they are using, and that safety is a high priority. Though it can be tough to navigate all of the certification in the industry, it’s important to look out for at least a few key acronyms: Figuring out what all the ambiguous letters and numbers involved in the huge array of certifications out there mean, can be mind-numbing. Unless you are in the business, most of it just seems like a bunch of nonsensical abbreviations, but there are a few very important ones to look out for: ISO certification, UL Registry, RoHS compliance, and IPC/WHMA adherence.

Modem And Router


When choosing a modem, if your service provider is providing internet through the cable network, the modem for cable is a standard one called the DOCSIS 3.0 being the latest format across all brands. If it is a DLS connection, you would go for a VDSL connection for speeds greater than 15 Mbps and an ADSL connection for lesser speeds.

The number of channels available is important. For one or two persons, 8 download and 4 upload channels are sufficient, while for a larger family, with many devices working simultaneously, 16 or 32 download channels, high end modems which are expensive would be required.


Routers are a lot easier to choose. There are two types of technology in use.

· The faster AC which has beam forming technology, directs a beam at your device instead of the radius wifi technology. This is better for new devices and old ones too work well on this technology.

· N technology is comparatively slower.

The number too denotes the speed in megabytes per second. (Mbps) It can range from 100 Mbps to 5300 Mbps. Ideally, one should go for speeds upwards of 1600 Mbps not greater than 2300 Mbps. This is valuable advice from an expert.

It is always better to buy a modem and a router on your own rather than going for what the service provider is providing for a low rent. The difference in internet speed is worth spending a few hundred dollars.

Biometric Hardware

Biometrics provides convenience, simplicity of use, simple scalability and increased cyber security. In addition, they are increasingly sophisticated and proven, including facial recognition as a means of authentication. Biometrics needs to be secure. however, it can’t interrupt somebody’s day-to-day pursuits. For smaller companies, in addition, it supplies a cloud-based solution which delivers fingerprint biometrics and smart cards.

There are a few specific forms of biometrics utilized for some particular purposes. They will also have some impact on the workplace with regards to the need for additional hardware costs such as scanners. Behavioral biometrics is a new type of biometric that gives you the ability to confirm your identity with how you behave, instead of some facet of your physical body.

Biometrics allows an employee to use their fingerprint as identification at any location in the retail shop. They are part of the cutting edge of technology. They are also being used in the automotive industry in the form of biometric vehicle access systems. They are already changing the game, and they will continue to do so. They also offer flexibility to the user different identifiers can be used in different situations. Behavioral biometrics utilize ephemeral data, meaning theft would just be a temporary disability.

Info of Printer Cartridges

The ink reservoir cartridge is considered economical as the print head is not within the cartridge thereby saving a basic expense. The design is such that compatible units can be produced. Inkjet printers use thermal technology and go by the name of bubble jet printers. Laser jet printers are based on static electricity and the quality is superior to inkjet printers.

While using printers, keep in mind that they should be serviced regularly, that the paper used should be of good quality and that correct installation techniques and aligning instructions are followed.

If you are buying refilled cartridges, look for OEM or original equipment manufacturers like Canon, Epson, Brother, to name a few. The company’s name on the product is a sign of its authenticity. Generic cartridges give high quality results and are reliable and they are a cheaper option to their branded counterparts. Some names in this field are Hewlett Packard, Compaq, and Lexmark. Remanufactured cartridges are basically recycled cartridges which pass the required test for proper use.

It is necessary to have some knowledge about printers and their use regarding printing output and cartridges otherwise one may end up buying the wrong cartridge. Since cartridges come in different varieties for different jobs, one must have a clear idea of one’s requirements. Accessories can be quite expensive so good research before buying a printer would go a long way in keeping within your budget.